Mar 2, 2011

Shurut (Conditions) and Pillars of tawhid 'LailahaillaAllah'

We find in every age of history, from the time of Nuh (as) to our present day many people claiming that they are on the right path and claiming that they worship Allah as well as professing to be believers but Allah did not accept their belief that they professed nor their worship that they carried out because it was not as He wanted. Hence Allah passed a verdict of disbelief and misguidance upon them despite them claiming belief and worship.

Allah (jj) sent messengers to them making clear the belief that is required of them together with the worship that is acceptable as well as informing them that the mere professing of belief and worship of Allah does not benefit them according to Allah if it is not in accordance with what Allah requires and what He has revealed. 

Indeed the value of a person according to Allah is not judged by the abundance of worship which he has no proof from Allah upon him but is judged by the great amount of worship which pleases Allah and which He has ordered. How many people engage in numerous amounts of worship but they do not weigh even the value of a mosquito’s wing according to Allah (swt). The worship that they performed is nothing according to Allah because they did not carry it out as Allah required and as He ordered.

The Jews in the time of RasulAllah (saw) engaged in abundance of worship and claimed they were upon the truth as well as being the chosen people of Allah. Likewise the Christians also engaged in abundance of worship and professed belief but Allah (awj) did not accept their worship nor their faith and pronounced upon them the ruling of kufr, misguidance and shirk.

Thus Allah (swt) says: “Say: O people of the scripture (Jews and Christians), you are not on the right path until you act according to the Tawrah and the Injil, and what has been sent down to you from your Lord. Verily that which has been sent down to you (Muhammad) from your Lord increases in many of them their obstinate rebellion and disbelief. So be not sorrowful over the people who disbelieve.” (al-Ma’idah 5/68)

The mushrik at the time of RasulAllah (saw) believed in the existence of a creator of this world that created them and created this world. They also believed that this deity is their sustainer who gives life and death and in spite of all this Allah still called them disbelievers and polytheists. If they remained and died on this path they would enter the Hell fire and remain there forever. So listen to what Allah (swt) says about these mushrikun and what they believed.

“Say: Whose is the earth and whosoever is therein? If you know! They will say: It is Allah’s. Say: Will you not then remember?  Say: Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the great throne? They will say: Allah! Say: Will you not then fear Allah? Say: In whose hand is the sovereignty of everything and He protects (all) while against whom there is no protector, if you know? They will say: To Allah! Say: How then are you deceived and turn away from truth? Nay, but We have brought them the truth and verily, they are liars.” (al-Muminun 23/84-90)

Indeed Allah does not accept neither belief nor Islam nor worship except if it is as He requires and as He has ordered as well as sincerely for His sake only. If a person performed an act of worship and his intention was sincerely for Allah, will Allah accept this sincere worship if he did not do it according to how Allah wants it? Likewise if a person sincerely believes in Allah but his belief is not as Allah ordered it to be, will Allah accept the faith of such a person? Without a doubt Allah does not accept his faith or his action except if it is in the form that He requires it to be.

Allah (awj) says: “Whoever submits to Allah and performs good deeds then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold (LailahaillaAllah) and to Allah return all matters for decision.” (Luqman 31/22)

It is substantially apparent with evidence from the Qur'an and the Sunnah that adherence is required via the assertion of faith. In reality for this assertion of faith to take place a love commitment is required to and for the sake of Allah as well as commitment of hatred towards the enemies of Allah, his religion and believers for the sake of no other but Allah. The assertion of faith is a must for one to be a true servant of Allah and in order for one to be able to enter his paradise ‘Jannah’, the statement ‘LailahaillaAllah’ is the only key to its entrance. This does not mean that any ignorant who utters the words ‘lailahaillaAllah’ will enter the promised paradise of the faithful. It is obviously a simple fact although not so easy. One must submit himself to the meaning of the assertion in order to qualify to even be a candidate for this entrance. By submission it is meant to love and hate for only and no other but Allah and the omission of everything and everyone else.

According to Wahb ibn Munabbah it is essential that one must surrender himself by heart and by action to Allah in order for the assertion of faith to take place. He claims the true meaning of the assertion is only found by the means of doing an action, any action for Allah and no other. His clarification of the matter of one entering paradise by uttering the words of faith ‘lailahaillaAllah’ is as follows…

In the first century of the Hijrah someone asked Wahb ibn Munabbah whether the words; 'There is no god but Allah, were the key to success.' ‘Certainly’, he said, ‘but of course every key has teeth, so if you come with one that has teeth, the door will open, but if you don't, it won't’." (Reported in Bukhari, in an appendix to Kitab al-Jana'iz with regard to someone whose last words are 'there is no god but Allah', 3/109; Fath’ul-Bari; Bukhari, Tarikh; Abu Nu’aym, al-Hilya and Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Kalimat al-Ikhlas) The teeth of this key are the prerequisites of the declaration of faith.

Ibn Rajab after narrating this from Wahb ibn Munabbah said: “The hadith of ‘lailahaillaAllah is the key of jannah’ had been narrated by Imam Ahmad with a broken chain. (Weak hadith. Ahmad; Bazzar, Kahfu’l-Astar; Tabarani; Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, al-Majmau’z-Zawaid) Muadh (ra) said: “RasulAllah (saw) told me: ‘When the people of Yaman ask you about the key of jannah; tell them it is lailahaillaAllah.” (Weak hadith. Bayhaqi.) RasulAllah mentioning salih amal (good deed) as a condition of entering jannah in the majority of the ahadith is evidence of the words of Wahb ibn Munabbih being sound.” (Kalimatu’l-Ikhlas)

Abdu'r-Rahman ibn Hasan Aal Ashaikh (ra) said: “Most people ignore the meaning of ‘LailahaillaAllah’, and even if they declare it with their tongue, they have denied its meaning. One should pay attention to these six or seven conditions without which one cannot be safe from kufr or nifaq (hypocrisy). A person can only become a Muslim if these conditions are met and implemented because the heart should confirm with the tongue in terms of theory, knowledge, action, practice, belief, acceptance, love and compliance. So knowledge is essential as opposed to ignorance; sincerity as opposed to shirk and truthfulness as opposed to lies unlike the Mushrikin and the hypocrites. Certainty is also essential as opposed to doubt, because one can say ‘LailahaillaAllah’… and be doubtful of its meaning and requirements. Love as opposed to hatred, and acceptance as opposed to rejection, because one can understand its meaning but reject it as was the case with the Pagan (Mushrikin) Arabs. Compliance with ‘LailahaillaAllah’ as opposed to shirk in the sense that the one who does not act according to it and complies with its requirements will certainly be a Mushrik (a person who associates partners with Allah). So anyone who fulfills all these conditions has gained the light with which he worships Allah (awj) and he has ultimately followed the right and straight path.” (ad-Durur as-Saniyya - The Book of Tawhid, 255/2)

Abu Hanifa (ra) said: “Before Allah (jj) sent Muhammad (saw), people were in such situation that they were associating partners to Allah. Allah sent Muhammad (saw) to call people to Islam. And he (saw) called people that there is no deity except Allah, he (saw) called people to testify that He (swt) is One and He (awj) does not have any partner, and accept everything that came from Allah. The person who entered Islam, became mu’min, away from shirk, his blood and properties were counted worthy to respect, and had the rights of the right of a Muslim. The one who rejected Islam during the era of the call of Muhammad (saw) counted as kafir, away from Islam and his blood and properties became permissible. Nothing other than either being a Muslim or to be executed will be accepted for these; but only the hukm of Allah regarding the ahl kitab; ‘to take jizya and leave them free in their religions’ is accepted (from this general ruling). Then the faridha had been revealed for the believers. Then performing the faridha with iman has become amal. For this reason Allah (awj) commands in the Qur’an: ‘who believe and work righteousness’ (al-Baqarah 2/25), ‘who believe and do righteous deeds’ (at-Talaq 65/11) Many similar of these ayahs are present in the Qur’an.” (Risalah to Uthman al-Batti by Abu Hanifa)

LailahaillaAllah is the most important right of Allah over His creation: It was narrated by Mu'adh ibn Jabal (ra) that RasulAllah (saw) said: "O Mu'adh, do you know what Allah's right upon his servants is ?  I said, Allah and His Messenger know best. RasulAllah (saw) said: To worship Him (Allah) alone, and to join none in worship with Him. Do you know what their right upon Him is?  I replied, Allah and His Messenger know best. RasulAllah (saw) said: Not to punish them (if they do so)." (Bukhari)

LailahaillaAllah is the starting point of our da’wah (invitation): It was narrated by Ibn Abbas (ra): "When RasulAllah (saw) sent Mu’adh (ra) to Yemen, he said to him: You are going to a nation from the People of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians). So, let the first thing to which you will invite them be the tawhid of Allah. If they learn that, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five compulsory congregational prayers, to be offered perfectly in one day and one night…" (Bukhari)

Due to the kalimah 'LailahaillaAllah', Allah (awj) will admit someone to paradise: It was narrated by Ubaadah ibn as-Saamit (ra) that RasulAllah (saw) said: “Whoever testified that none is worthy of worship except Allah, Alone, without partners; and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger; and that Isa is His slave and Messenger, and His Word which was bestowed upon Maryam, and a spirit (created) from Him; and that Paradise is a reality; and that Hell-Fire is a reality, Allah will admit him to Paradise, whatever his deeds might be.” (Bukhari)

A condition is a necessary requirement for something to be or happen. Its linguistic meaning is a sign (or indication). Its legal meaning is that whose absence requires something else to be absent and that whose existence in and of itself does not require something else to exist or to be absent.

The conditions of ‘lailahaillaAllah’ are of great importance, it is compulsory on every Muslim to know and implement them in their daily lives. It is expected that the person should believe in his heart what is required or what is indicated by the meaning of 'LailahaillaAllah'. The importance of that is singling out Allah with ‘al-wahdaniyyah’ (uniqueness) and ‘al-ubudiyyah’ (worship). This is the affirmation that Allah is ‘unique’ and ‘alone’, and there is nothing like him in His ‘qualities’ or ‘characteristics’ (sifaat) and His ‘actions’ (af'aal) and that He ‘alone’ deserves to be worshipped ‘ubudiyyah’. This is because if a person breaks one of these conditions, his Islam is nullified. The ulamaa of Islam consider that the declaration of faith depends on seven conditions and the following are the evidences of the Shurut (Conditions) of 'LailaahaillaAllah':

1- ash-Shart al-Awwal (first condition) al-Ilm (Knowledge which negates ignorance)

Knowledge of its meaning, and what it negates (Nafyan) and affirms (Ithbaatan). If a person says it without knowing its meaning, or what its requirements are, then he will not benefit by it, because he has not believed in what it requires.  Rather, he is like someone who speaks in a language that he does not understand. It is mandatory upon every individual who pronounces the Shahadah to know what it means.  It is the first prerequisites and refers the knowledge of what the declaration of faith negates and of what it confirms and it negates ignorance.

The evidence for (the condition of) Ilm is: "So know (O Muhammad) that 'LailahaillaAllah' (none has the right to be worshipped except Allah) and seek forgiveness for your sins…" (Muhammad 47/19)

Therefore if anyone ignores that Allah (swt) is the only One Who is Worthy of Worship, then his Islam is nullified, and due to this reason knowledge is considered as a basic condition in the acceptance of one’s Islam.

Also, Allah (awj) commands: "And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession; except those who bear witness to the truth (i.e., believed in the Oneness of Allah, and obeyed His Orders), and they know (the facts about the Oneness of Allah)." (az-Zukhruf 43/86)

This witnessed truth is Tawhid, which pervades the heart as you declare the kalimah; and lastly:

"Allah (Himself) is Witness that there is no god but Him and, (so are) the angels and the people of knowledge, Who sustains His creation with justice; there is no god but Him, the Almighty, the Wise." (Al-i Imran 3/18)

And from the Sunnah, it is narrated on the authority of Uthman (ra), who said: "RasulAllah (saw) said: Whoever dies knowing that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah (i.e., LailahaillaAllah) will enter paradise." (Muslim)

Abdu’r-Rahman bin Hasan said: “The scholars of Ahlu’-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah have stated while discussing the meaning of ‘LailahaillaAllah’ and what makes it and breaks it, that knowledge with absolute belief has been made compulsory by Allah upon everyone and that it is one of the conditions that can make or break the Shahaada. al-Wazir (Abul Mudhafar) stated in his book ‘al-Ifsah’: ‘That to testify that there is no god but Allah requires that the witness should know fully the meaning of it. As Allah (jj) says: “So know that there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah…” (Muhammad 47/19) Abul Mudhafar also stated that this declaration of faith (LailahaillaAllah) consists of the rejection of Taghout and the belief in Allah, therefore when one rejects all gods other than Allah (swt) and then affirms that worship should be directed to no one but Allah (swt), he has disbelieved in Taghout and believed in Allah (swt) Alone.” (ad-Durur as-Saniyya 2/216)

Abd-Allah bin Abdu’r-Rahmaan Abu Butayn (ra) said: “Allah (swt) says: “This is a message to mankind in order that they may be warned thereby and that they may know that He is One and that the people of understanding may take heed.” (Ibrahim 14/52) It is very important to note that Allah (swt) didn’t say “… and that they may say that He is One” He (swt) said “…and that they may know that He is One.” Allah (swt) also says: “And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession; except those who bear witness to the truth (i.e., believed in the Oneness of Allah, and obeyed His Orders), and they know (the facts about the Oneness of Allah).” (az-Zukhruf 43/86) That is to say they should know in their hearts what they gave witness to with their tongues. RasulAllah (saw) said: “Whoever dies with the knowledge that there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah shall enter Jannah.” (Muslim) The scholars referred to the previous ayah and others like it as evidence to prove that the first obligation on a person is to know Allah (swt). This ayah proves that the largest of obligations is the knowledge of the meaning of ‘LailahaillaAllah’ and that the greatest form of ignorance is to be ignorant of the meaning of ‘LailahaillaAllah’. Yet surprisingly, we still find that there are people who if they hear someone talking about the meaning of ‘LailahaillaAllah’ as rejection and affirmation, they disagree because they think it is not their duty to judge people. We answer them by saying that everyone is entrusted to learn Tawhid, for which Allah created both the Jinn and the mankind, and sent all His Prophets and Messengers to call to. You are required to know the opposite of Tawhid, which is Shirk, that Allah (swt) does not forgive nor excuse out of ignorance, and it is also forbidden to blindly follow on this matter because it is the corner-stone and root of one’s Islam. Therefore anyone who does not enjoin the good and forbid evil is surely led far astray especially because the greatest good is Tawhid and the worst evil is Shirk.” (ad-Durar as-Saniyya 58/12)

Abdu’l-Latif bin Abdu’r-Rahmaan ibn Hasan (ra) said: “Muhammad bin Abdu’l-Wahab (ra) said: “Anyone who says the Shahadah without knowing its meaning and without living or acting according to it; is not a Muslim. In fact it would be used against him unlike al-Karamiya who claim that Iman is fulfilled by mere acknowledgement or al-Jahriyya who claim that iman is achieved simply by belief.” (ad-Durur as-Saniyya 535/12)

Shaykh Sulayman ibn Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdu’l-Wahhab (ra) said: “It is not enough for one to utter ‘lailahaillaAllah’ without knowing its meaning and performing according to it; or claiming to be one among the ahl tawhid without knowing tawhid yet performing prayer, khawf (fear), sacrifice, votive offering, Tawbah, inaba and other types of ibadaah to other than Allah. In this situation, such person only can be a mushrik.” (Taysiru’l-Azizi’l-Hamiyd, 140)

Allah (swt) called the Munafiqun liars after they came with false testimony claiming to be Muslims. They had verbally accepted Islam but Allah (swt) exposed them as liars when He (swt) said: “If the hypocrites come unto you and say: we bear witness that you are a Messenger of Allah: and Allah knows that you are his Messenger and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars.” (al-Munafiqun, 63/1)

And from this we conclude that iman is achieved through belief in theory and practice. As for the one who says ‘LailahaillaAllah’ and then goes and worships others besides Allah, his Shahadah is invalid even if he prays, gives Zakaat (alms), fasts and implements all the other Islamic rituals. Allah (awj) addresses him in the Qur’an and says:

“Do you believe in part of the book and disbelieve in another part…” (al-Baqarah 2/85)

2- ash-Shart ath-Thaani (second condition) al-Yaqin (Certainty, which is the perfection of the knowledge of the kalimah ‘LailahaillaAllah’; which negates doubt and uncertainty.)

It is the second prerequisite and it is the complete denial of uncertainty. This means that whoever pronounces the declaration of faith must be completely and utterly sure that it is the truth. Faith must be based upon certainty and not upon doubt. Therefore whoever learns Tawhid and understands the meaning of ‘LailahaillaAllah’, he must have absolute certainty about the fact that all forms of worship should be directed to Allah (swt) alone and entertain no doubt or hesitation about it.

The evidence (for the condition of) al-Yaqin is:

Allah (jj) states: "The believers are only those who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not, but they strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful." (al-Hujuraat 49/15)

In a hadith of RasulAllah (saw), he is reported to have said: "I bear witness that nothing deserves to be worshipped except Allah, and that I am the Messenger of Allah.  No one will meet Allah with these two (words of testimony) while he has no doubt about them, except that he will enter Paradise." (Bukhari; Muslim)

Also, from Abu Hurayrah (ra) the saying of RasulAllah (saw): "Whoever you meet on the other side of this wall (beyond this room), who testifies that nothing deserves to be worshipped except Allah, while his heart is certain of this (testimony); give him the good news of al-Jannah (paradise)." (Muslim)

Another report says: "None will come to Allah with these words, never doubting any of it, and not see paradise." (Muslim)

Shaykh Abdu’r-Rahman ibn Hasan stated: “According to Qurtubi, simply pronouncing the declaration of faith is not enough; you must also be certain of it in your heart. This contradicts the doctrine of the extremist Murji'ah sect who say that by simply saying these words you have established an adequate foundation for faith. Their own arguments contradict one another. In fact, this position is known to destroy whoever supports it, because it requires him to condone hypocrisy and to ascribe true faith to hypocrisy, and this is a negation of faith.” (Fathu’l-Majid, 36)

3- ash-Shart ath-Thaalith (third condition): al-Qubul (Acceptance, which negates ar-Radd rejection)

It is the third prerequisite and it is accepting inwardly, and to declare openly, whatever the declaration of faith requires. The individual who submit Islam must next verbally acknowledge that he has accepted the Shahaadah and never deny it for any reason other than Ikrah (Compulsion).

The evidence (for the condition of) al-Qubul is:

Allah tells us that some of those who came before accepted it and knew success, while others rejected it and invited His wrath:

"And similarly, We sent not a warner before you (O Muhammad saw) to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps. (The warner) said: Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following? They said: Verily, We disbelieve in that with which you have been sent. So We took revenge of them, then see what was the end of those who denied (the worship of Allah alone)." (az-Zukhruf 43/23–25)

Allah (swt) also says: "Then shall We save Our Messengers and those who believe in the same way (as before). It is incumbent upon Us to save the believers." (Yunus 10/103]

Also, His Saying: "Truly when it was said to them: 'lailahaillaAllah', they puffed themselves up with pride (i.e., they denied it), and they said: Are we going to abandon our gods for the sake of a mad poet?" (as- Saffat 37/35-36)

4- ash-Shart ar-Raabi (fourth condition) al-Inqiyaad (Complete Submission and Compliance with its rights, which are the obligatory duties, doing it purely for Allah, seeking His Pleasure)

It is the fourth prerequisite and it is abandoning oneself to what the declaration of faith implies, namely, complete surrender to Allah. Every individual has to strive towards ‘LailahaillaAllah’ with his actions and comply with what it requires. They should reject all false deities and direct all forms of worship to Allah (swt) alone. The difference between al-Qubul and al-Inqiyaad is that al-Qubul is accepting the Shahadah verbally but al-Inqiyaad is acting according to what the Shahadah requires.

The evidence (for this condition of) al-Inqiyaad is:

Allah (swt) commands: "And turn in repentance and in obedience with true faith to your Lord, and submit to Him before the torment comes upon you, and then you will not be helped." (az-Zumar 39/54)

Also, He (jj) stated: "And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to Allah, and he is a Muhsin (a doer of good), and follows the religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan (to worship none but Allah alone). And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil (an intimate friend)." (an-Nisa 4/125)

"And whoever submits his face (i.e., himself) to Allah, while he is Muhsin (a doer of good), then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold (i.e., lailahaillaAllah).” (Luqman 31/22)

The 'firm hand-hold' means to completely understand and accept the declaration of faith. In the words of RasulAllah (saw) it is mentioned as: "None of you has believed until his desires are in accordance with what I have come to you with." (Imam Nawawi, Forty Hadith, # 41) This refers to the perfection of your obedience and of your desire to obey.

Allah (awj) also, commands: "But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad saw) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission." (an-Nisa 4/65)

Ibn Kathir points out that in this ayah Allah makes an oath upon Himself and swears that no one has believed until he accepts the authority of the Prophet in all matters. This is the truth that the believer must apply to himself both in public and in private. This is why He says in the ayah: "And find within themselves no dislike of what you decide, and submit with full submission"; that is: "they accept your judgment in their hearts and find do difficulty in themselves in following what you have decided." Thus they submit to it completely, with no pressure or coercion, and without argument. This point was made again when RasulAllah (saw) said: "By He in Whose hand is my soul, none of you has believed until his desires are in accord with what I have come to you with." (Tafsir, 2/306)

It is narrated that RasulAllah (saw) said: "No one of you have (true) Faith, until his Hawa (desires, whims etc.) are in accordance with what I have come with." (Baghawi, Sharhu’s-Sunnah 1/213)

Abdu’r-Rahman bin Hasan (ra) said: “It is not enough to claim to be a Muslim or to verbally declare ‘LailahaillaAllah’. What Islam really means is to assert Allah (swt)’s Oneness and submit fully to Him in terms of Lordship and worship both theoretically and practically. Allah (jj) says: “And whoever rejects the Taghout and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break…” (al-Baqarah 2/256) And He (swt) also says: "You do not worship besides Him but only names which you have named (forged), you and your fathers, for which Allah has sent down no authority. The command (or the judgment) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him (i.e., His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.” (Yusuf 12/40)” (ad-Durar as-Saniyya- The Book of Tawhid 264/2)

5- ash-Shart al-Khaamis (fifth condition) as-Sidq (Truthfulness, which negates lying (kadhib) and prohibits hypocrisy -nifaaq)

It is the fifth prerequisite and it is denouncing falsehood sincerely, doing this with heartfelt conviction, so that the tongue follows the heart. Therefore every individual should be truthful in what he has done. 

The evidence (for the condition of) as-Sidq is:

Saying of Allah (jj): "Alif-Lam-Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: We believe! And will not be tested. And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allâh will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allah knows all that before putting them to test)." (al-Ankabut 29/1-3)

Also, He commanded: "And of mankind, there are some (i.e., hypocrites) who say: ‘We believe in Allah and the Last Day’ while in fact they believe not. They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not! In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies." (al-Baqarah 2/8-10) 

RasulAllah (saw) said: “Allah shall forbid the fire from anyone that bears witness truthfully from his heart that there is nothing worthy of worship except for Allah and that Muhammad is his slave and messenger.” (Bukhari; Muslim)

RasulAllah (saw) also said: “Whoever says LailahaillaAllah truthfully shall enter Jannah.” (Ahmad)

RasulAllah (saw) said: "My intercession is for whoever witness that there is no god but Allah sincerely, whose heart believes his tongue, and whose tongue believes his heart." (Hakim, al-Mustadrak, 1/70; he said that the isnaad was sahih, and ad-Dhahabi confirmed him in this.)

Ibn Rajab adds: "As for those who give lip service to the words: 'There is no god but Allah', but then follow Satan in disobedience and contentiousness, their actions have made clear the emptiness of their words and the weakness of their belief: "And who goes farther astray than he who follows his desires without guidance from Allah?" (al-Qasas 28/50) and:  "Do not follow desire so that it lures you away from the way of Allah." (al-Qasas 28/26).” (Kalimat al-Ikhlaas, 28)

Ibn Qayyim remarks that sincerity with regard to the words: “There is no god but Allah, must depend on your compliance with, and acceptance of, the obligations which this statement places upon you. These obligations are represented by the Shari’ah, which itself is an elaboration of the declaration of faith. It means that you believe in whatever Allah has revealed that you follow His commandments and avoid what He has forbidden. One who is truly sincere in this belief will abide by it completely. The complete protection of the Shari’ah is only assured by complete compliance with it. Likewise, complete security from punishment only comes from complete obedience to it.” (at-Tibyan fi Aqsam al-Qur'an, 43)

As for someone who declares Tawhid with his tongue and then rejects what it means in his heart then his Tawhid will not be accepted and it will not save him as Allah (swt) clearly states about the Munaafiqun when they said: “We bear witness that you are a Messenger of Allah” Allah (swt) answered them by saying: “When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad saw), they say: ‘We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.’ Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars indeed.” (al-Munaafiqun 63/1) Allah (swt) has also called them liars by saying: “And of the people are those who say we have believed in Allah and in the final day while in fact they believe not.” (al-Baqarah 2/8)

6- ash-Shart as-Saadis (sixth condition) al-Ikhlaas (Purity and Sincerity. Worshipping Allah exclusively, which negates shirk)

al-ikhlaas is to make all forms of worship for Allah Alone, not for anyone or anyone else. It is the sixth prerequisite and it is singularity of devotion. This means that you should purify your deeds by cleansing your intentions of all traces of reverence towards any created thing.

The evidence (for the condition of) al-Ikhlaas is:

Allah (swt) stated: "Surely, the pure religion (i.e., the worship and obedience) is for Allah alone." (az-Zumar 39/3)

He also said: "And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him)…" (al-Bayyinah 98/5)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (ra), from RasulAllah (saw) (that he said): "The most fortunate (happiest) of people who will receive my Shafaa’ah (intercession), will be the one who said: ‘LailahaillaAllah' sincerely from his heart or his soul." (Bukhari)

Also in the meaning of al-ikhlaas is that the person should not pronounce their Islam with the willingness to please anyone or anything other than Allah (swt). It is narrated, on the authority of Utbaan ibn Malik, from RasulAllah (saw), that he said: "Allah has forbidden the Fire upon one who says 'LailahaillaAllah', seeking by this the Face of Allah (i.e., saying this sincerely for Allah alone)." (Bukhari; Muslim)

Also, that which is reported by Nasai, from the hadith of two men from among the companions, that RasulAllah (saw) said: "Whoever said: 'LailahaillaAllah, Wahdahu, La Sharika lahu, lahu’l-Mulk wa lahu’l-Hamd, wa Huwa ala kulli shay’in Qadir' – the heart being sincere, the tongue being truthful, Allah will make an opening in the sky due to it, such that He will look at the one who has said it from the people of the earth; and  it is the right of a servant whom Allah looks at that he be given what he asks for." (Amal al-Yawm wa’l-Layl)

In a similar narration it is stated that two of the Prophet's companions report that RasulAllah (saw) said: "Whenever someone says from his heart in singular devotion, his tongue pure in belief: 'There is no god but Allah alone; He has no partner; His is the dominion; His is the praise; and He has power over all things', Allah opens a path for this in the heavens and smiles ‘hatta yandhuru alayhi’ (literally means: until He looks at him) upon whomever from among the people of the earth has said it, and it is the right of the servant of Allah upon whom He smiles that his request be granted." (Imam ibn Rajab, Kalimat al-Ikhlaas; al-Jami al-Kabir, 2/477)

Abu Hurayrah (ra) reports that RasulAllah (saw) said: "Allah rises up by my intercession whoever says: 'There is no god but Allah', from the depths of his heart with complete purity of devotion." (Bukhari)

"Though performed in singular devotion to Allah, an act of worship is not accepted if it is incorrectly done." writes al-Fudhayl ibn Iyadh. Ibn Taymiyyah said: "One performed correctly, but not in singular devotion to Allah is not accepted either. Any act of worship must be performed both in complete devotion to Allah, and correctly. Complete devotion means that the act is for Allah alone. Correctly means that it is performed according to the Sunnah." (Iqtida as-Sirat al-Mustaqim, 451)

Allah has given us a clear example of the contrast between absolute and flawed devotion to Him in this ayah from the Qur'an: "Allah strikes a metaphor: a man who has several owners, quarrelling; and a man belonging wholly to one man. Are the two equal in comparison?" (az-Zumar 39/29)

Commenting on this ayah, Sayyid Qutub says: "This example contrasts the servant whose devotion is to Allah alone with the one whose devotion is shared out among many. The latter is likened to a slave jointly owned by men who quarrel over him: to each of them he owes a duty and each of them makes demands of him. His situation totally confounds him. He can find no way and no means to satisfy all of their conflicting and contradictory demands. The former, however, has but one master. He knows what he wants from him and does his duty to him, so he finds the road clearly marked before him. Are these two the same? Not at all: the man whose service is to one master benefits from the comfort and security, peace of mind and certainty that unite his actions and his goals with the means of achieving them; but the man with quarrelling masters is shaken by torment. He can find no way out; if he pleases one the others are unhappy. The reality of the Unity of Allah is contained in this example, as is the truth about its antithesis, polytheism. The heart of the believer, rooted in the truth of Allah's Unity, is a heart through which guidance from Allah flows; that is, inspired only by Him and dutiful to Him alone." (Fi Dhilal al-Qur'an, 5/3049)

"The significance of this is that it indicates that singularity of devotion is through singularity of purpose. As Allah says: "Are (many) different lords better, or Allah the One, the Almighty?" (Yusuf 12/39)” (al-Qaasimi, Mahaasin at-Ta'wil, 14/5138)

Islam requires submission to Allah alone; whatever else one has submitted to in this way must be abandoned. This is the true significance of the words 'there is no god but Allah', since whoever submits to Allah and to something other than Him at the same time, has associated something with Allah. Allah does not forgive this. Whoever fails to submit to Him has scorned His worship:

"Surely those who scorn worship of Me will enter Hell disgraced." (Mu’min 40/60)

7- ash-Shart as-Saabi (seventh condition) al-Muhabbah (Love for this kalimah ‘lailahaillaAllah’ and for that which it indicates (entails), and being happy, joyous and delighted with it)

It is the seventh prerequisite and it is: loving the declaration of faith, loving all that it requires and all it implies, loving all those who act upon it and who hold to all that it stands for and to feel anger at whatever contradicts it. Every mukallaf should love the fact that the only one worthy of worship is Allah (swt) and show his love for Allah (swt) with his tongue.

The evidence (for the condition of) al-Muhabbah is:

Allah (awj) commands: "And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as Andaal (rivals). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe love Allah more (than anything else)." (al-Baqarah 2/165)

Also, said: "O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers…" (al-Ma’idah 5/54)

RasulAllah (saw) said: “The sweetness of faith belongs to whoever may find himself in these three states: that Allah and His Messenger are more dear to him than any other thing; that he loves someone only for the sake of Allah; and that he despises a return to disbelief after Allah had saved him from it, as much as he would hate to be thrown into the fires of Hell." (Bukhari; Muslim)

Ibn Qayyim narrates: “People have discussed about mahabbah (love of Allah); its causes and what brings it about, its signs, its fruits, and its rulings. The most comprehensive saying about this is what Abu Bakr al-Kattani (d.322H) relates about al-Junayd (d.297H). Abu Bakr al-Kattani (d.322H) said: “A discussion about mahabbah took place in Makkah during the Pilgrimage month. The Shaykhs who were present spoke about this matter, and al-Junayd was the youngest of them. They said to him: ‘O Iraqi, what do you have to say? So he bowed his head and tears were flowing from his eyes, then he said:

A servant should overcome his soul;
And be continuous in the remembrance of his Lord;
Establishing the rights of his Lord;
Focusing upon Him with his heart;
The light of fear letting ablaze his heart;
Whilst drinking from the vessel of true love;
And certain realities become unveiled for him.
So when he talks, it is due to Allah.
When he speaks, it is from Allah.
When he moves, it is by the Command of Allah.
And when he is serene, then it is from Allah.
He belongs to Allah, is for Allah, and is with Allah.

So the Shaykhs started to weep and said: How can that be increased upon. May Allah reward you with good, O crown of the knowledgeable ones!.” (Madaariju’s-Saalikin, 3/9)

Ibn Qayim said in a poem: “The love of the Beloved must be unconditionally returned.
If you claim love yet oppose the Beloved, then you love is but pretence.
You love the enemies of your Beloved and still seek love in return.
You fight the beloved of your Beloved.
Is this Love or the following of Shaiytan?
True devotion is nothing but total submission of body and soul to One Love.” (an-Nuniyya, 158)

Ibn Rajab said: “The word ‘lailahaillaAllah’ will necessitate not loving any other but Allah. It is because the ilah is the one who is obeyed due to his love, fear and hope and not rebelled against. Loving the things He loves, and not loving the things which He does not love are the things which complete the love of Allah. The one that loves what Allah dislikes and the things which Allah will not be pleased with; disliking what He commanded, (what) He is pleased with, (that which) He loves; the iman of such individual and the authenticity of his iman have not actualized completely. In this individual there are marks of hidden shirk from liking whatever Allah dislikes to disliking whatever Allah loves. Allah (jj) stated the following: “This because they followed that which called forth the Wrath of Allah, and they hated Allah's good pleasure; so He made their deeds of no effect.” (Muhammad 47/28) Lays informed that Mujaahid explained the ayah: “They will worship Me (alone) and not associate aught with Me.” (an-Nur 24/55) as: “They will not love any other but Me.” Hakim in his Sahih narrated from Aishah (raa) that RasulAllah (saw) said: “Inconspicuous Shirk (ash-Shirk al-Khafi) in the Muslim nation is more inconspicuous then the creeping of black ant on black rock in the pitch; darkness of the night. The least of this is you bughz (cursing) something from dhulm (oppression). Doesn’t deen consist of loving and bughz (curse/condemn/enmity/hatred)? Allah commands: “Say: If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you.” (Al-i Imran 3/31)” (Hakim; al-Bazzar, Kashfu’l-Astar; Abu Nuaym, al-Hilya) This nass shows us that: It is obedience to hawa to love whatever Allah dislikes and dislike whatever Allah loves. The enmities towards the things which Allah loves and the befriending things which Allah dislikes contain hidden shirk. Hasan (ra) said: “Know this very well! Until you love the obedience to Allah you will never love Allah.”
When Dhunnun (al-Misri) asked: “When will I love Allah?” he said: “When a thing which is disliked by Allah becomes harder then sabr (patience) for you, then you have loved Allah.” Bishr Ibn Sariyya used to say: “Loving those which the lover does not love is not among the signs of the love.” Abu Yaqub an-Nahri Jawri said: “The claim of the one, who claims to love Allah while not living according to the commands of Allah, is baatil (untrue).” Yahya ibn Muadh said: “The one who claims to love Allah but does not watch over (protect) the hududullah (the limits of halaal and haraam) is a liar.” Ruwayim said: “The real love for Allah is practicing according to His command under every circumstance.” And then he recited this poem:
If you command me to die
I will say I hear and I obey.
I will say welcome and hello to the caller of death.”  In the same manner the following ayah of Allah also denotes these which have been said: “Say: If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you.” (Al-i Imran 3/31) Hasan said: The ashab of RasulAllah said: “We love Allah at the most and they wanted Allah to specify a sign for the love of Allah. Therefore Allah (swt) had revealed the previous ayah.” At this point this reality comes out: LailahaillaAllah will be completed only with loving those whom loved by Allah and hating those who hated by Allah. For knowing the things Allah loves and dislikes there is no other method to learn other than obeying Muhammad (saw); who is the one which brought these from Allah and informed (tabligh) us, the matters he commands us and to abstain from what he prohibits us. It is because the love of Allah necessitates loving RasulAllah (saw), to confirm him and to obey him. Therefore Allah (awj) mentioned His love with the love of RasulAllah (saw) in the following ayah: “Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers…are dearer to you than Allah, or His Messenger.” (at-Tawbah 9/24) In the same manner Allah (awj) mentioned many times the obedience to Himself along with the obedience to His Messenger: In a hadith narrated from Anas ibn Malik (ra), RasulAllah (saw) commanded: "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will have the sweetness (delight) of faith: The one to whom Allah and His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah's sake. Who hates to revert to Atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the fire.” (Bukhari; Muslim)” (Kalimatu’l-Ikhlas)

The signs of love for Allah are to give precedence to this love and to suppress your desires: to conquer your desire for what angers your Lord and to feel anger towards it; to ally yourself with Allah, His Messenger, and those who are with them; to oppose whoever opposes Him; and to follow in the footsteps of His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, accepting his guidance.

Allah must be obeyed by following His guidance, commands and refraining from His prohibitions. Obedience to Allah must be associated with loving Him and fearing from His punishment and in the same manner hoping for His reward and seeking His forgiveness at the same time adhering to the teachings and shari'ah of His Messenger (Muhammad). 

Al-Furqan Foundation

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